Thursday, 19 February 2015

Essential sources for Irish dialect study II: Doegen

Oileán Thoraí, radharc as Machaire Robhartaigh. (Wikimedia Commons)

Updated: 10 January 2017

Doegen: hundreds of recordings of native speakers - online

As mentioned earlier here, we are truly fortunate to have - in the form of the Royal Irish Academy's Doegen Records Web Project - direct, free online access to around 400 sound recordings of 136 different speakers from 16 counties, made between 1928 and 1931. This is an enormous amount of rare source material which is now, thankfully, available for all to study or simply enjoy, rather than sitting locked away half-forgotten in a university archive.

The Doegen material - which includes stories, songs and simpler texts - is extremely valuable not merely because it gives us the precious opportunity to hear the actual Irish speech of counties where the language is no longer spoken and where little was recorded phonetically (e.g. Cos. Derry, Leitrim, Cavan and Roscommon), but also because it is so extensive geographically and content-wise. Doegen offers us sound recordings of speech from areas within counties which were Irish-speaking until recently and which are otherwise relatively well-studied (e.g. Urris in Inishowen; Co. Clare). It offers a wealth of material concerning the Irish of 85 years ago - also for areas within the contemporary Gaeltacht. 

I have noticed, however, that the Doegen Records Web Project website was not designed with comparative dialectological research in mind. The browse function works well if you wish to directly locate the recordings of a named speaker, but if you are seeking to compare speakers within a certain geographical area you must take a circuitous route via individual speakers' biography pages here, finding out which townland they are from, noting it, and moving on to the next speaker, and so forth. 

A shortcut for dialect research using Doegen

Therefore, I have below prepared a list of shortcut links based on general geographical areas within the 16 counties for those who may wish to compare dialect features. The shortcut will take you to the speaker's information page, on which you can read more about them and listen to all the tracks on which they were recorded.

The list is arranged very roughly north to south by county (this is why Armagh and Louth come after Sligo), and within each county by very general dialect area. Thus far speakers are identified by surname (in alphabetical order if there is more than one person recorded at the location), first name; townland or location of origin (in English); civil parish; barony and county. Wider dialect areas and dialectal relationships are sometimes clarified in parentheses. Spellings are the official English forms used by Placenames Branch of the Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht and may depart from colloquial versions.

Where relevant I have also included suggestions for further (usually but not always academic) reading, including some downloads where possible. The suggestions for further reading are in no way meant to be exhaustive (for that, start here), but merely to provide a useful overview for researchers and students who may wish to discover or become more acquainted with key resources.

All links are tested and active as of 10 January 2017.

Further dialect resources - including more from some of those included below - will be discussed in later posts. A key overview of Irish dialects in general and historical perspective (including those of Leinster and Meath) is Williams, Nicholas. 'Na Canúintí a Theacht chun Solais' in McCone et al. Stair na Gaeilge: in ómós do Phádraig Ó Fiannachta. Maigh Nuad: Roinn na Sean-Ghaeilge, Coláiste Phádraig (1994).

Donegal (28 speakers)
Mac an Bhaird, Séamus, Tory Island, Tullaghobegly, Kilmacrenan, Donegal

Mac Giolla Cheara, Diarmuid, Urris, Clonmany, East Inishowen, Donegal
Mac Giolla Cheara, Phil, Letter, Clonmany, East Inishowen, Donegal

For more on the dialect of Urris, see Evans, Emrys. 'The Irish Dialect of Urris, Inishowen, Co. Donegal' in Lochlann 4 (1969, p. 1-130. This is intended as a supplement to Wagner, Heinrich (ed). Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects (hereafter LASID; four volumes; 1958 onward).

Nic Conaglaigh, Nóra, Glashagh, Clondavaddog, Kilmacrenan, Donegal (Fanad)
Mac Conaglaigh, Pádraig, Ballincrick, Clondavaddog, Kilmacrenan, Donegal (Fanad)

For more on the dialect of Fanad, see Evans, Emrys. 'A Vocabulary of the Dialects of Fanad and Glenvar, Co. Donegal' in Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 32 (1972), p. 167-265 (a supplement to LASID). There are also a great deal of excellent downloadable resources relating to Fanad, and Donegal and Ulster (including East Ulster and Oirialla) in general, available at Dr. Ciarán Ó Duibhín's brilliant site here, including his personal view on the Doegen recordings here

Ó Siadhail, Pádraig, Ardbane, Mevagh, Kilmacrenan, Donegal (Ros Guill)
Ó Gallchobhair, Doimnic, Derrycassan, Mevagh, Kilmacrenan, Donegal (Ros Guill)

Ó Conaglaigh, Seán, Carrowcanon, Raymunterdoney, Kilmacrenan, Donegal (Falcarragh)
Ó Cuirreáin, Séamus, Gortahork [Gort a' Choirce], Tullaghobegly, Kilmacrenan, Donegal
Ó Dubhthaigh, Aodh, Gortahork, Tullaghobegly, Kilmacrenan, Donegal
Mag Fhionnlaoigh, Séamus, Gola Island, Tullaghobegly, Kilmacrenan, Donegal

Mag Grianna, Éamonn, Rinnafarset [Rann na Feirste], Templecrone, Boylagh, Donegal
Mag Grianna, Feidhlimidh, Rinnafarset, Templecrone, Boylagh, Donegal
Ní Mhuireadhaigh, Áine, Rinnafarset, Templecrone, Boylagh, Donegal
Ó Domhnaill, Séan, Rinnafarset, Templecrone, Boylagh, Donegal
Ó Baoighill, Pádraig, Loughanure [Loch an Iúir], Templecrone, Boylagh, Donegal
Ó Conacháin, Pádraig, Tor, Tullaghobegly, Kilmacrenan, Donegal
Nic Cumhaill, Róise, Stranarwa, Tullaghobegly, Kilmacrenan, Donegal

Ní Dhomhnaill, Maighréad, Adderwal, Inishkeel, Boylagh, Donegal (Central Donegal)
Mac Meanman, Seán, Kingarrow, Inishkeel, Boylagh, Donegal (Central Donegal)
Ó Baoighill, Domhnall, Classy, Inishkeel, Boylagh, Donegal (Central Donegal)

Ó Creag, Mánus, Tawnawully, Donegal parish, Tirhugh, Donegal (South Donegal)
Ó Gallchobhair, Tomás, Ardara, Killybegs Lower, Tirhugh, Donegal (South Donegal)

For more on the dialect of this area, see Quiggin, E. C. A Dialect of Donegal (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1906), available to download here.

McConnell, Nellie, Laconnell, Inishkeel, Banagh, Donegal (South West Donegal)
Campbell, Patrick, Meenadreen, Glencolumbkille, Banagh, Donegal (South West Donegal)
Mac Giolla Chearr, Seán, Teelin, Glencolumbkille, Banagh, Donegal (South West Donegal)
Ó Caiside, Séamus, Teelin, Glencolumbkille, Banagh, Donegal (South West Donegal)
Mac Seagháin, Tomás, Cappagh Upper, Banagh, Donegal (South West Donegal)

For more on the dialect of South West Donegal, see Wagner, Heinrich. Gaeilge Theilinn (Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1958), available to buy here.

Antrim (2)
Mac Amhlaoibh, Brian, Clonreagh [Glenariff], Ardclinis, Glenarm Lower, Antrim (Glens of Antrim)
McKiernan, Michael, Knocknacarry, Layd, Glenarm Lower, Antrim (Glens of Antrim)

For more on the dialect of the Glens of Antrm, see Holmer, Nils. 'On Some Relics of the Irish Dialect Spoken in the Glens of Antrim' in Uppsala Universitets årsskrift 7 (1940). I am hoping to digitise this resource soon, as it is very rare.

Further information on the dialects of Rathlin Island and the Glens of Antrim is available at Ciarán Dunbar's Rathlin and Glens Irish blog here. You can also download Holmer, Nils. 'The Irish Language in Rathlin Island, Co. Antrim' (Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 1942), the comprehensive and detailed linguistic overview of Rathlin Irish, via Ciarán's blog here.

Derry (1)
Ní Chleircín, Eilis, Glengomna, Ballynascreen, Loughinsholin, Derry (South Derry)

Tyrone (4)
Nic Ruaidhrí, Jane, Leckin, Bodoney Lower, Strabane Upper, Tyrone (Muintir Luinigh)
Ó Cianáin, Eoin, Formil, Bodoney Lower, Strabane Upper, Tyrone (Muintir Luinigh)

The standard work on the Irish of Muintir Luinigh is Ó Tuathail, Éamonn. Sgéalta Mhuintir Luinigh (1932), which is available for download at Ciarán Dunbar's Gaeltacht na Spéiríní blog here. See also, however, Stockman, Gerard, and Wagner, Heinrich. 'Contributions to a Study of Tyrone Irish' in Lochlann 3 (1965), p. 43-236, a supplement to LASID.

McDaid, Máire, Tullycar, Termonamongan, Omagh West, Tyrone (West Tyrone)
Ó Gallchobhair, Pádraig, Tulnashane, Termonamongan, Omagh West, Tyrone (West Tyrone)

Leitrim (1)
Feely, Anna, Cleighragh [Glenade], Rossinver, Rosclogher, Leitrim

See Ó Ceilleachair (1967-8) below (Sligo).

Cavan (1)
Mag Uidhir, Seán, Legnagrow, Templeport, Tullyhaw, Cavan (Glangevlin)

For more on the dialects of Cavan, see Ó Tuathail, Éamonn. 'Seanchas Ghleann Ghaibhle' supp. Béaloideas 4.4 (1934) and Ó Tuathail, Éamonn. 'Gleanings from Lough Ramor' in Béaloideas 7:2 (1937). The first deals with Glangevlin; the second with the Irish of South East Cavan (Carrigabruse and Clonkeiffy).

Sligo (5)
Ó Coisdealbha, Seán, Moneygold, Ahamlish, Carbury, Sligo (North Sligo)

Ó Cearbhaill, Tomás, Letterbrone, Kilmacteige, Leyny, Sligo (South Sligo; cf: East Mayo)
Ó hEadhra, Pádraig, Letterbrone, Kilmacteige, Leyny, Sligo (South Sligo; cf: East Mayo)
Mac an Déisigh, Seán, Culdaly, Kilmacteige, Leyny, Sligo (South Sligo; cf: East Mayo)
McEvey, Brigid, Curry, Achonry, Leyny, Sligo (South Sligo; cf: East Mayo)

For more on dialects of Sligo, se Ó Ceilleachair, Stiofán. 'Canúint Mhuintir Chionnaith agus Chlann Fhearmaighe' in Breifne 1967-8 (also includes information the dialects of North Leitrim, West Cavan and East Mayo).

Armagh (1)
Ní Arbhasaigh, Máire, Clonalig, Creggan, Fews Upper, Armagh (Oriel; cf: Louth)

For more on the dialect of South Armagh, see Sommerfelt, Alf. 'South Armagh Irish' in Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap 2 (1929). I am hoping to digitise this resource soon, as it is very rare.

Further information about the dialect of South Armagh can be found at Ciarán Dunbar's Ráidhteachas an Fheadha blog here.

Louth (3)
Ní Chaslaigh, Brighid, Drummullagh, Carlingford, Dundalk Lower, Louth (Oriel; cf: Armagh)
Mac Cuarta, Brian, Ardaghy, Carlingford, Dundalk Lower, Louth (Oriel; cf: Armagh)
Ní Ghuibhirín, Cáit, Ardaghy, Carlingford, Dundalk Lower, Louth (Oriel; cf: Armagh)

For more on the dialect of Oirialla (including South Armagh and East Co. Monaghan), see Dunbar, Ciaran. Cnuasach Focal as Oirialla. (Dublin: Coiscéim, 2012), which is available to buy here. Ciarán's blog is an extensive supplement to the book. 

On the dialect of East Co. Monaghan (specifically Inishkeen, Farney) see LASID  Vol. 4 p. 4-13.

Mayo (17)
Ó Dubhagáin, Mícheál, Curraunboy, Kilcommon, Erris, Mayo
Ó Neachtain, Seán, Muingnabo, Kilcommon, Erris, Mayo

Ó Monacháin, Seán, Ardmore, Kilmore, Erris, Mayo (Belmullet)

Breathnach, Pádraig, Inishkea North, Kilmore, Erris, Mayo

Mag Uidhir, Pádraig, Doohooma, Kilcommon, Erris, Mayo (Gweesalia)

McGinty, Frank, Ballycroy, Kilcommon, Erris, Mayo
Mac Meanman, Pádraig, Claggan, Kilcommon, Erris, Mayo

Ó hInnéirghe, Mícheál, Inishbiggle, Kilcommon, Erris, Mayo

For more on the dialect of Erris, see Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn. The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo. (Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1968), available to buy here.

Mac Giolla Bháin, Séamus, Cloghmore, Achill parish, Burrishoole, Mayo (Achill)

For more on the dialect of Achill, see Stockman, Gerard. The Irish of Achill, Co. Mayo. Belfast: Queen's University of Belfast (1974).

Ní Mháille, Brighid, Rosturk, Burrishoole parish, Burrishoole, Mayo
Ó Móráin, Liam, Rosturk, Burrishoole parish, Burrishoole, Mayo
Ó Ceallaigh, Tomás, Rockfleet, Burrishoole parish, Burrishoole, Mayo

Ó Ceilleacháin, Aindréas, Carrowbeg, Kilmovee, Costello, Mayo (East Mayo; cf: South Sligo)
Ó Dubhthaigh, Tomás, Lurga Lower, Kilbeagh, Costello, Mayo (East Mayo; cf. South Sligo)

For more on the Irish of East Mayo, see Lavin, T. H. 'Notes on the Irish of East Mayo' in Éigse 9 (1957) p. 10-17; Dillon, Myles. 'Vestiges of the Irish Dialect of East Mayo' in Celtica 10 (1973), p. 15-21 (Kilmovee); Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn. 'Notes on a Mayo Dialect' in Celtica 12 (1977), p. 171-184 (Rinnananny); and Ó Ceilleachair, Stiofán. 'Canúint Mhuintir Chionnaith agus Chlann Fhearmaighe' in Breifne 1967-8 (Kilmovee; mainly focused on Sligo, Leitrim and Cavan).

Ó Meadhra, Pádraig, Toormakeady, Ballyovey, Carra, Mayo (cf: Leenaun, Galway)
Ó Murchadha, Éamonn, Cahernagollum, Ballinchalla, Kilmaine, Mayo
Ó Gioballáin, Seán, Kildun, Cong, Kilmaine, Mayo

For more on the dialect of South Mayo, see de Búrca, Seán. The Irish of Tourmakeady, Co. Mayo. (Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1958), available to buy here.

Roscommon (2)
Ganley, Thomas, Cloonmaul, Tibohine, Frenchpark, Roscommon (North Roscommon)

Sarsfield, Mary Ellen, Cloonfineen, Kiltullagh, Castlereagh, Roscommon (South Roscomon)

Galway (35)
Ó Maoilchiaráin, Labhrás, Lisheennaheltia, Boyounagh, Ballymoe, Galway (East Galway)
Ó Lócháin, Tomás, Camderry, Kilbegnet, Ballymoe, Galway (East Galway)
Mullrooney, Eileen, Lissavruggy, Killian, Galway (East Galway)

Ó Caodháin, Seán, Leenaun, Ross parish, Ross, Galway
Ruddy, Sally, Leenaun, Ross parish, Ross, Galway
Ó Máille, Peadar, Munterowen, Ross parish, Ross, Galway
Breathnach, Mícheál, Maum East, Ross parish, Ross, Galway
Ó hAllmhuráin, Pádraig, Knockaunbaun, Ross parish, Ross, Galway
Breathnach, Tomás, Cloughbrack, Ross parish, Ross, Galway
Ó Ceithearnaigh, Máirtín, Cloughbrack, Ross parish, Ross, Galway
Breathnach, Séamus, Cornamona, Cong, Ross, Galway
Brún, Séamus, Cornamona, Cong, Ross, Galway
Ó Súilleabháin, Pádraig, Cornamona, Cong, Ross, Galway

In 'The Irish of Leenane, Co. Galway', Celtica 7 (1966), p. 128-134, Seán de Búrca states that the dialect of Leenaun at least was substantially the same as that of nearby Tourmakeady (see above).

A very interesting overview of a dialect with features transitional to both North Galway and South Mayo - that of Derryvoreada - is Nilsen, Kenneth E. 'Some Features of the Irish of Bun a' Cruc, Recess, Co. Galway' in Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium Vol. 3 (1983), p. 91-106. Nilsen chose to study this dialect because it fell between two isoglosses on the LASID map and had not been studied before.

Mac Confhaola, Seán, Errislannan, Ballindoon & Islands, Ballynahinch, Galway
Ó Niadh, Tomás, Bunnahown [Bun na hAbhann], Moyrus, Ballynahinch, Galway
Mac Con Iomaire, Tomás, Cuilleen, Moyrus, Ballynahinch, Galway

Ó Néill, Pádraig, Ardgaineen, Annaghdown, Clare, Galway (East Galway)
Ó Murchadha, Mícheál, Cahernahoon, Lackagh, Clare, Galway (East Galway)

Ó Colláin, Seán, Corrandulla, Annaghdown, Clare, Galway
Mullryan, Brigid, Montiagh, Claregalway, Clare, Galway
Ó Concheanainn, Mícheál, Montiagh, Claregalway, Clare, Galway

Ó Lonnáin, Séamus, Anglingham, Oranmore, Galway, Galway
Nolan, Thomas, Tonabrocky, Rahoon, Galway, Galway

Costello, Mary, Rosmuck [Ros Muc], Kilcummin, Moycullen, Galway
Ó Mainnín, Pádraig, Rosmuck, Kilcummin, Moycullen, Galway
Ó Niadh, Pádraig, Rosmuck, Kilcummin, Moycullen, Galway
Mac Con Iomaire, Tomás, Camus Oughter [Camas Uachtair], Kilcummin, Moycullen, Galway
Ó Gábháin, Pádraig, Clynagh [Cladhnach], Kilannin, Moycullen, Galway
Ó Direáin, Séan, Lettermullan Island [Leitir Mealláin], Kilcummin, Moycullen, Galway

Conlan, Kate, Ballintaggart [Baile an tSagairt], Moycullen parish, Moycullen, Galway (Cois Fhairrge)
Ó Tuairisc, Seán, Loughaun Beg [An Lochán Beag], Killannin Moycullen, Galway (Cois Fhairrge)

For an overview of the dialect of Cois Fhairrge, see de Bhaldraithe, Tomás. The Irish of Cois Fhairrge, Co. Galway. (Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1945), available to buy here.

Ó Fathaigh, Mícheál, Tawin East, Ballynacourty, Dunkellin, Galway (South Galway)

Ó Direáin, Máirtín, Sruffaun, Inishmore [Inis Mór], Aran, Galway (Aran Islands)
Ó Concheanainn, Peadar, Inishmaan [Inis Meáin], Inishmaan parish, Aran, Galway (Aran Islands)

Mitchell, Martin, Tirneevin, Kiltartan, Galway (Galway-Clare border; cf: Aughinish below)

Clare (5)
Mag Fhloinn, Máirtín, Aughinish, Burren, Clare (Galway-Clare border; see Tirneevin above)

Shannon, James, Ballyvara, Corcomroe, Clare (North West Clare)
Ó hEilíre, Stiofán, Ballycullaun, Corcomroe, Clare (North West Clare)
Carún, Seán, Luogh North, Corcomroe, Clare (North West Clare)
Ó Dileáin, Liam, Knockevin, Corcomroe, Clare (North West Clare)

For more on Galway-Clare border dialects, see Holmer, Nils. The Dialects of Co. Clare. (Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 1962), available for download here.

Tipperary (1)
Ó Liatháin, Séamus, Curragh, Iffa and Offa West, Tipperary

Kerry (12)
Ó Conchúir, Séamas, Ardaneanig, Magunihy, Kerry
Breathnach, Tomás, Coom, Magunihy, Kerry
Ó Cathaláin, Tomás, Fybagh, Trughanacmy, Kerry

Ó Ruairc, Pádraig, Cloghane, Corkaguiny [Corca Dhuibhne], Kerry
Ó hAiniféin, Seán, Lispole, Corkaguiny, Kerry
Mac Gearailt, Mícheál, Dunquin [Dún Chaoin], Corkaguiny, Kerry
Ó Dálaigh, Tomás, Dunquin, Corkaguiny, Kerry

For more on the dialect of Corca Dhuibhne, see Ó Sé, Diarmuid. Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne. (Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 2000), available to buy here. A shorter and more practical introduction to the dialect by the same author, in the An Teanga Bheo series, is available to buy here.

Ó Gealbháin, Aindréas, Derreennagreer, Dunkerron South, Kerry
Ó Sé, Tadhg, Caherdaniel, Dunkerron South, Kerry

Mac Coluim, Fionán, Spunkane, Iveragh [Uíbh Ráthach], Kerry
Ó Ceallaigh, Pádraig, Ballinskelligs, Iveragh, Kerry
Ó Conaill, Seán, Ballinskelligs, Iveragh, Kerry

Waterford (6)
Ó Cadhla, Labhrás, Ballinamult, Decies-Without-Drum [Na Déise], Waterford
Ó Corcráin, Tomás, Bohadoon, Decies-Without-Drum, Waterford

de Breit, Pádraig, Island, Decies-Without-Drum, Waterford

Ó Cionnfhaolaidh, Mícheál, Ring [An Rinn], Decies-Without-Drum, Waterford
Ó Droma, Seán, Ring, Decies-Without-Drum, Waterford
Turraoin, Mícheál, Ring, Decies-Without-Drum, Waterford

For more on the dialect of Rinn, see Breathnach, Risteard B. The Irish of Ring, Co. Waterford (Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1947), available to buy here. A voluminous glossary of Waterford Irish is the study by Archbishop Michael Sheehan (1870-1945), available as Breathnach, Risteard B. Seana-chaint na nDéise II. (Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1961), available to buy here.

Cork (12)
Mac Coitir, Diarmuid, Derrynasaggart, Muskerry West, Cork
Ó Cruadhlaoich, Pádraig, Ballyvourney, Muskerry West, Cork
Ó Luineacháin, Diarmaid, Clondrohid, Muskerry West, Cork
Ó Céilleachair, Domhnall, Coolea [Cúil Aodha], Muskerry West, Cork
Ó Loingsigh, Amhlaoibh, Coolea, Muskerry West, Cork

For more on the dialect of this area, see Ó Cuív, Brian. The Irish of West Muskerry, Co. Cork (Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1944), available to buy here.

Breathnach, Séamas, Knockadoon, Imokilly, Cork

This dialect and its relationship both to other Cork dialects and to the Irish of Waterford is discussed in detail in Ó Cuív, Brian. Irish Dialects and Irish Speaking Districts (Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1951).

Ó Sé, Pádraig, Ardgroom, Bear, Cork
Ó Scolaí, Séamus, Crossterry, Bear, Cork
Ó hArachtáin, Pádraig, Adrigole, Bear, Cork
Ó Súilleabháin, Proinnsias, Adrigole, Bear, Cork
Ó Laoghaire, Mícheál, Cloghfune, Bear, Cork

Ó Síocháin, Conchúr, Clear Island [Oileán Chléire], Carbery West, Cork

For more on the dialect of Cléire, see Ó Buachalla, Breandán. 'Phonetic Texts from Oileán Chléire' in Lochlann 2 (1962). p. 103-121. A shorter and more practical contemporary introduction to the dialect by the same author, in the An Teanga Bheo series, is available to buy here.

Total number of speakers in Doegen recordings: 136

Oileán Chléire. (Wikimedia Commons)


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